Is it the Berenstein Bears, or the Berenstain Bears? Does the Monopoly Man have a monocle? Did Nelson Mandela die in prison?

It turns out we are very prone to a particular kind of memory error—remembering things we never experienced!


0:00 – Titles
0:12 – Overview
1:12 – The Mandela Effect
2:53 – Visual memory capacity
4:34 – Flashbulb memories
5:37 – False memories
7:37 – Memory schemas
8:45 – What causes the Mandela Effect?
10:53 – Wrap-up
11:33 – Outtro

Brady, Konkle, Alvarez & Oliva (2008). Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details.
Bainbridge, Hall & Baker (2019). Drawings of real-world scenes during free recall reveal detailed object and spatial information in memory.
Greenberg (2004). President Bush’s False ‘Flashbulb’ Memory of 9/11/01.
Talarico & Rubin (2003). Confidence, not consistency, characterizes flashbulb memories.
Miller & Gazzaniga (1998). Creating false memories for visual scenes.
Nickerson & Adams (1979). Long-term memory for a common object.
Blake, Nazarian & Castel (2015). The Apple of the mind’s eye: Everyday attention, metamemory, and reconstructive memory for the Apple logo.
Wong, Wadee, Ellenblum & McCloskey (2018). The Devil’s in the g-Tails: Deficient letter-shape knowledge and awareness despite massive visual experience.
Bainbridge, Isola & Oliva (2013). The intrinsic memorability of face photographs.
Prasad & Bainbridge (2022). The visual Mandela Effect as evidence for shared and specific false memories across people.

Fiona Broome’s original Mandela Effect website: